Python is increasingly becoming an important language for Geospatial Scientists to know. Within ArcGIS, the language is increasingly being used to create scripts for batch processing. This is especially the case given the use of Visual Basic (VBA) is being deprecated within ArcGIS (source). Batch processing allows for a task, which would be repeated several times, to be coded rather than requiring an end user (i.e. Geospatial Scientist) to spend their time inputting the same information. At a basic level, programming Python scripts is a time saver. This being said, Python scripts can also be used to link geoprocessing tools together allowing for complex analysis to be done with minimal user effort. Some might note that this application is possible using ArcGIS’s Model builder, but personal experience would suggest that using scripts has a lower frequency of hanging up as well as lower processing times. As such, I would encourage users to try turning their frequently used models into Python scripts to test hangup frequency and speed differences.
ArcGIS has a number of resources for Python Scripts and programmers which can be found here. If you are just interested in learning some Python code in a general sense (i.e. not specific to ArcGIS libraries/arcpy) you might consider checking out Code Academy’s Python tutorials.
SQL (Pronounced either S.Q.L. or sea-quill) is a programming language dominantly used for databases, their management and organization. As a result, Geospatial Scientists can use this language when working with large quantities of tabular data. Views and triggers, among other database objects, can be created using SQL thereby ensuring the integrity of the database while providing the requisite data.
Examples of SQL code can be seen on the Developing a Web Mapping Application page.